From 13rd Century To 14th Century
The 13th and 14th centuries were a time of great transition in the world of art. Gothic art gave way to Renaissance art, and artists began to experiment with new techniques and materials. This period saw the rise of great masters like Giotto, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo, who would go on to change the course of art history.
Madonna and Child
This lyrical work inaugurates the grand tradition in Italian art of envisioning the sacred figures of the Madonna and Child in terms appropriated from real life.
The Christ Child gently pushes away the veil of his mother, whose sorrowful expression reflects her foreknowledge of his crucifixion.
The beautifully modeled drapery enhances their three-dimensional, physical presence and the parapet connects the fictive, sacred world of the painting with the temporal one of the viewer.
The bottom edge of the original frame is marked by candle burns.
The Crucifix is meant to be seen from both front and back.
The Crucifix is from Romanesque Spain.
The Crucifix is attributed to the later convent of Santa Clara at Astudillo, near Palencia, but the source is not reliable.
The Adoration of the Magi
This picture - at once austere and tender - belongs to a series of seven showing the life of Christ.
The masterly depiction of the stable, which is viewed from slightly below, and the columnar solidity of the figures are typical of Giotto, the founder of European painting.
Enameled and Gilded Bottle
This bottle is remarkable because it is large and delicate.
Few such large or painterly examples of enameled glass are known.
The polychrome phoenix on the neck soars above the central scene of mounted warriors wielding maces, swords, and bows.
Standing Figure with Jeweled Headdress
The ornamented headdress, arms, and rich vestments of this figure suggest that it most likely represents a sovereign's personal guard, viziers or amir.
Probably meant to decorate the reception hall of a ruler's court, be it the Seljuk sultan or one of his local vassals or successors, figures like this one would parallel and enhance actual ceremonies in the very setting in which they took place.
Recent analyses have proven that a traditionally-made gypsum plaster is consistently employed on these figures and on archaeological stuccoes.
Pierced Jug with Harpies and Sphinxes
This intricate feat of pottery emulates a metal object.
The openwork - featuring Harpies (mythical birdwomen), Sphinxes, quadrupeds (four-footed mammals), and scrolls - was first painted with touches of black and cobalt blue.
The Persian verses around the rim were written by the poet Rukn al-Din Qummi, and an anonymous love poem near the base includes the date of production.
Tabernacle Polyptych with the Madonna and Child and Scenes from the Life of Christ
The use of folding shrines in private devotion requires the participation of their owners, who must open the wings in order to contemplate the images.
Here, the form is essentially French, but the weightier proportions and architectural elements are more characteristic of northern Spain.
The form is essentially French, but the weightier proportions and architectural elements are more characteristic of northern Spain.